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n6 Reviews of Books
in so doing Mr. Ogg thinks he broke new ground. He " reshaped men's
conception of the presidency and helped make that office the power that
it is to-day" (p. 236).
In Mr. Ogg's volume the honest, virile, irascible, chivalric, iron-
willed, patriotic " General " Jackson and his battles with Indians, law-
breakers, red-coats, nullifiers, aristocrats, John Adams, John Marshall,
and the Whigs stand out in fresh and strong lines again.
D. R. Anderson.
The Conquest of the Old Southwest: the Romantic Story of the
Early Pioneers into Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee, and Ken-
tucky, 1740-1790. By Archibald Henderson, Ph.D., D.C.L.
(New York: Century Company. 1920. Pp. xxiv, 395. $2.50.)
One expects from Mr. Henderson a well-told story, and this volume
realizes this expectation. In about four hundred pages there has been
condensed a narrative of- the advance of the Americans into the region
of the southwest, particularly into Tennessee, that will interest the
scientific historian as well as the lay reader.
This general praise of the book calls for the establishment of very
definite limitations. Although in his title and subtitle Mr. Henderson
claims to have covered the whole Old Southwest with the possible ex-
ception of lands bordering the Gulf, he has in general centred his narra-
tive around two events, the Transylvania Company enterprise and the
Revolutionary War in the modern state of Tennessee. The years and
the territory lying just outside of the time and scene of these events
have received scant treatment. The westward push of the Virginians
into Kentucky, the intrigues of the land speculators, the question of the
provincial soldiers' rights, the significance of the laying out of Louisville
— this last event not even being mentioned — the claim of the Indiana
Company in modern West Virginia, are all granted inadequate treat-
ment. The Vandalia Company, around which played so much politics
both in America and in the mother country, receives only half a page,
whereas to the Transylvania Company are devoted two chapters without
counting the two others depicting the activities of the company's agent,
Daniel Boone. The struggle of Tennessee for statehood is treated at
length, whereas the equally important effort on the pan of Kentucky is
granted a few paragraphs. Very significant events affecting the Old
Southwest were taking place during these years in West Florida, but
the name of that colony does not appear in the index.
Mr. Henderson adds another, authority to be quoted in favor of the
popular apotheosis of Daniel Boone, to whose story he devotes two
chapters full of eulogy. Boone has been fortunate in his biographers,
who have told his story in such a way that popular fancy has pictured
him as the first man to visit the blue-grass region of Kentucky. Mr.
Henderson, himself, names many who had preceded this doughty hunter,
Skinner: Adventurers of Oregon 117
but by no means all. From the end of the seventeenth century French
and American hunting parties were frequent visitors to Kentucky and
Tennessee, and had been so successful that it was said in 1767 that the
game there was scarce. By 1768 the whole region was fairly well known
to many English-speaking visitors and hundreds of boatmen had floated
on the Ohio past its shores. Mr. Henderson mentions a few voyages
(p. 120) and dismisses them with the following, "though interesting
enough in themselves, [they] had little bearing upon the larger phases
of westward expansion ".
There are a few errors in the book that should be noted. Celoron de
Blainville, and not Celeron de Bienville, was the French officer who was
sent in to the Ohio valley in 1748. The Cherokee were never so favor-
able to the French as is stated on page 49. The traditional interpreta-
tion of the importance of Governor Spotswood's expedition to the moun-
tains is retained. It is not yet proved that the British in the Northwest
offered bounties for American scalps (p. 261). Unfortunately a line or
more has been dropped by printer's carelessness at the bottom of page
193 ; aside from this, the bo'ok is very free from typographical errors.
From what has been said it is evident that there are grave limita-
tions to Mr. Henderson's interpretation of Old Southwest history; but
if the reader is interested in the Watauga settlement, in the Transyl-
vania experiment, in the battle of King's Mountain, in the Indian wars
of Tennessee, in the abortive attempt to establish the state of Franklin,
and in a fine interpretation of the character and spirit of the frontiers-
men, he will find the narrative very valuable.
C. W. Alvord.
Adventurers of Oregon: a Chronicle of the Fur Trade. By Con-
stance L. Skinner. [Chronicles of America series, vol. XXII.]
(New Haven: Yale University Press. 1920. Pp. x, 290.)
This book is a delight. The author treats the dramatic scenes and
incidents in the background of Oregon's history, achieving therein a
wholly unusual degree of literary perfection. Thus she has produced a
narrative which, for adult readers, deserves to take very high rank in
its special field. That field the subtitles, eight in number, help to define
although each of these again calls for some analysis. The titles are:
the River of the West, Lewis and Clark, the Reign of the Trapper, the
Tonquin, Astor's Overlanders, Astoria under the Nor'westers, and the
King of Old Oregon. The period covered is from the beginnings of
exploration to the settlement of the Oregon boundary dispute in 1846,
and the themes represented by the above chapter-heads are essentially
two — Discovery and Exploration, and the Fur-Trade.
In her treatment the author exhibits a good knowledge of the facts,
a comprehension of relations, critical insight, and a mastery of artistic
arrangement rarely excelled. Her critical acumen is manifested not